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Wireworld in Emacs

By Christopher Lemmer Webber on Fri 10 March 2017

It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a hacker under the pressure of a deadline must be in want of a distraction. So it has been with me; I've a TODO list a mountain high, and I've been especially cracking under the stress of trying to get things moving along with ActivityPub. I have a test suite to write, and it's turned out to be very hard, and this after several other deadlines in a row. I've also meant to blog about several things; say the talks I gave at FOSDEM or at ChicagoLUG. I've got a leak in my inbox that's been running for so long that the basement of my email has developed an undertow. So today, instead of getting what I knew I should be doing done, I instead went off and did something much more interesting, which is to say, I implemented Wireworld in emacs.

Wireworld in emacs screenshot

What is Wireworld? It's a cellular automaton, not unlike Conway's Game of Life. Except with Wireworld, the "cells" in play are a bit more constrained... you have a set of wires, and electrons run along them, multiply, and die out, but the paths stay the same. The rules are very simple to implement (Wikipedia says all there is to know). But you can build incredible things with it... even a fully working computer!

Anyway, like many hacks, this one appeared out of boredom/distraction. I had long wanted to play with Wireworld, and I was reminded of it by seeing this cool hack with a digital clock implemented in Conway's Game of Life. It reminded me just how much I wanted to try implementing that computer, or even much simpler circuitry, but I had never been able to get started, because I couldn't find a working implementation that was easy for me to package. (I started packaging Golly for Guix but got stuck for reasons I can't remember.) I started thinking about how much I liked typing out ASCII art in Emacs, and how cool would it be to just "draw out" circuits in a buffer? I started experimenting... and within two hours, I had a working implementation! Two more hours later, I had a major mode with syntax highlighting and a handy C-c C-c keybinding for "advancing" the buffer. Live hacking in Emacs is amazing!

More could be done. It would be nice to have a shortcut, say C-c C-s, that starts up a simulation in a new buffer and runs through the simulation automatically without clobbering your main buffer. (It could work the way M-x life does.) Anyway, the code is here should you want to play around.

Happy (circuit) hacking!

Gems from really old lisp mailing lists

By Christopher Lemmer Webber on Thu 09 March 2017

... which are archived here. I'm especially finding the CADR lisp machine mailing list to be interesting.

The lispnews list is a bit hard to read, but unveils some key lisp ideas one after another in their earliest state; fascinating stuff. First reference to unwind-protect, and the details of backquote/quasiquote are being worked out here. (EDIT: more on backquote's history.)

Here's some interesting bits: David Moon (who worked on Common Lisp, helped develop Emacs, and was one of the original developers of the the lisp machine) mentioning Common Lisp and the CADR switching to it; rms (who was a maintainer of lisp software at the time) not being so pleased about it, or the way it was announced, and Guy L. Steele (who was editing the Common Lisp standard) replying. Later RMS seems to be investigating how to make it work together.

Sadly it seems that debate was discouraged on that list, and I don't see the BUG-LISPM list around anywhere.

You probably noticed that I was cherry-picking reading emails by RMS. It's no coincidence... I knew this was coming up, and here it is:

Here also is where Symbolics started to move out of the AI lab and where they announced that MIT may use their software, but may not distribute it outside the lab... which is, according to my understanding, one of the major factors frustrating rms and leading to the founding of GNU. A quote from that email:

This software is provided to MIT under the terms of the Lisp System License Agreement between Symbolics and MIT. MIT's license to use this software is non-transferable. This means that the world loads, microloads, sources, etc. provided by Symbolics may not be distributed outside of MIT without the written permission of Symbolics.

There it is, folks! And here's another user, Martin Connor, raising concerns about what the Symbolics agreement will mean. That person seems to be taking it well. But guess who isn't? Okay, you already guessed RMS, and were right. Presumably a lot of argument about this was happening on the BUG-LISPM list. I guess it's not important, but here is an amusing back and forth. I wonder if anyone has access to the BUG-LISPM or BUG-LISPM-MIT lists still?

Notably RMS wants to clarify that his work doesn't go to Lisp Machines Incorporated specifically, either, even though he was more okay with them.

I'm giving a talk at LibrePlanet 2017 on the Lisp Machine and GNU, which explains why I'm reading all this! Okay, well maybe I would have read it anyway.

Phyllis Fox, documenting Lisp History

By Christopher Lemmer Webber on Wed 08 March 2017

In honor of International Womens' Day, let's celebrate Phyllis Fox, who may have saved Lisp from the dustbin of history... by documenting it. From her oral history:

HAIGH: So you say that you wrote the first LISP manual?

FOX: Now, this was not because I was a great LISP programmer, but they never documented or wrote down anything, especially McCarthy. Nobody in that group ever wrote down anything. McCarthy was furious that they didn’t document the code, but he wouldn’t do it, either. So I learned enough LISP that I could write it and ask them questions and write some more. One of the people in the group was a student named Jim Slagel, who was blind. He learned LISP sort of from me, because I would read him what I had written and he would tell me about LISP and I would write some more. His mind was incredible. He could give lectures. Have you ever seen a blind person lecture?

HAIGH: No.

FOX: They write on a black (or white) board, and then they put a finger on the board at the point they have stopped to keep the place. Then they talk some more and then they go on writing. His mind was remarkable. He was very helpful to me. But I wrote those manuals. I would ask questions from Minsky or McCarthy, and I got it done. I think it was helpful for people to have it. I guess, essentially I’m a documenter. If you’re looking for it, that’s what I am.

Phyllis Fox did a lot more than that, but as a Lisp enthusiast, thank you to Dr. Fox for preserving our programming knowledge!

CRISPR drive as a Thompson hack?

By Christopher Lemmer Webber on Sat 04 March 2017

I listened to this episode of Radiolab on CRISPR last night (great episode, everyone should listen), and I couldn't stop thinking about this part discussed at the end of the episode about a CRISPR gene drive... the idea is, you might want to replace some gene in a population, so you might use CRISPR to edit the gene of a single parent. Then that parent might reproduce, and there's a chance that its child might have it in the population. Natural selection whether it stays or not... it could, very well, peter out of a population.

But then they talked about this idea, which apparently worked on yeast "on the first try", which was to have the parent modify the yeast of the child during reproduction. The parent includes the instructions so that in reproduction, it goes through and edits its new child's DNA, and inserts the instructions on how to have that editor in the child's DNA too.

Holy crap, am I wrong or is that a Thompson hack in DNA form?

An even more distributed ActivityPub

By Christopher Lemmer Webber on Thu 06 October 2016

So ActivityPub is nearing Candidate Recommendation status. If you want to hear a lot more about that whole process of getting there, and my recent trip to TPAC, and more, I wrote a post on the MediaGoblin blog about it.

Last night my brother Stephen came over and he was talking about how he wished ActivityPub was more of a "transactional" system. I've been thinking about this myself. ActivityPub as it is designed is made for the social network of 2014 more or less: trying to reproduce what the silos do, which is mutate a big database for specific objects, but reproduce that in a distributed way. Well, mutating distributed systems is a bit risky. Can we do better, without throwing out the majority of the system? I think it's possible, with a couple of tweaks.

  • The summary is to move to objects and pointers to objects. There's no mutation, only "changing" pointers (and even this is done via appending to a log, mostly).

    If you're familiar with git, you could think of the objects as well, objects, and the pointers as branches.

    Except... the log isn't in the objects pointing at their previous revisions really, the logging is on the pointers:

    [pointer id] => [note content id]
    
  • There's (activitystreams) objects (which may be content addressed, to be more robust), and then "pointers" to those, via signed pointer-logs.

  • The only mutation in the system is that the "pointers", which are signed logs (substitute "logs" for "ledger" and I guess that makes it a "blockchain" loosely), are append-only structures that say where the new content is. If something changes a lot, it can have "checkpoints". So, you can ignore old stuff eventually.

  • Updating content means making a new object, and updating the pointer-log to point to it.

  • This of course leads to a problem: what identifier should objects use to point at each other? The "content" id, or the "pointer-log" id? One route is that when one object links to another object, it could link to both the pointer-log id and the object id, but that hardly seems desirable...

  • Maybe the best route is to have all content ids point back at their official log id... this isn't as crazy as it sounds! Have a three step process for creating a brand new object:

    • Open a new pointer-log, which is empty, and get the identifier
    • Create the new object with all its content, and also add a link back to the pointer-log in the content's body
    • Add the new object as the first item in the pointer-log
  • At this point, I think we can get rid of all side effects in ActivityPub! The only mutation thing is append-only to that pointer-log. As for everything else:

    • Create just means "This is the first time you've seen this object." And in fact, we could probably drop Create in a system like this, because we don't need it.
    • Update is really just informing that there's a new entry on the pointer-log.
    • Delete... well, you can delete your own copy. You're mostly informing other servers to delete their copy, but they have a choice if they really will... though that's always been true! You now can also switch to the nice property that removing old content is now really garbage collection :)
  • Addressing and distribution still happens in the same, previous ways it did, I assume? So, you still won't get access to an object unless you have permissions? Though that gets more confusing if you use the (optional) content addressed storage here.

  • You now get a whole lot of things for free:

    • You have a built in history log of everything
    • Even if someone else's node goes down, you can keep a copy of all their content, and keep around the signatures to show that yeah, that really was the content they put there!
    • You could theoretically distribute storage pretty nicely
    • Updates/deletes are less dangerous

(Thanks to Steve for encouraging me to think this through more clearly, and lending your own thoughts, a lot of which is represented here! Thanks also to Manu Sporny who was the first to get me thinking along these lines with some comments at TPAC. Though, any mistakes in the design are mine...)

Of course, you can hit even more distributed-system-nerd points by tossing in the possibility of encrypting everything in the system, but let's leave that as an exercise for the reader. (It's not too much extra work if you already have public keys on profiles.)

Anyway, is this likely to happen? Well, time is running out in the group, so I'm unlikely to push for it in this iteration. But the good news, as I said, is that I think it can be built on top without too much extra work... The systems might even be straight-up compatible, and eventually the old mutation-heavy-system could be considered the "crufty" way of doing things.

Architectural astronaut'ing? Maybe! Fun to think about! Hopefully fun to explore. Gotta get the 2014-made-distributed version of the social web out first though. :)