Beyond the shouting match: what is a blockchain, really?

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Sat 24 April 2021

If there's one thing that's true about the word "blockchain", it's that these days people have strong opinions about it. Open your social media feed and you'll see people either heaping praises on blockchains, calling them the saviors of humanity, or condemning them as destroying and burning down the planet and making the rich richer and the poor poorer and generally all the other kinds of fights that people like to have about capitalism (also a quasi-vague word occupying some hotly contested mental real estate).

There are good reasons to hold opinions about various aspects of what are called "blockchains", and I too have some pretty strong opinions I'll be getting into in a followup article. The followup article will be about "cryptocurrencies", which many people also seem to think of as synonymous with "blockchains", but this isn't particularly true either, but we'll deal with that one then.

In the meanwhile, some of the fighting on the internet is kind of confusing, but even more importantly, kind of confused. Some of it might be what I call "sportsballing": for whatever reason, for or against blockchains has become part of your local sportsball team, and we've all got to be team players or we're gonna let the local team down already, right? And the thing about sportsballing is that it's kind of arbitrary and it kind of isn't, because you might pick a sportsball team because you did all your research or you might have picked it because that just happens to be the team in your area or the team your friends like, but god almighty once you've picked your sportsball team let's actually not talk against it because that might be giving in to the other side. But sportsballing kind of isn't arbitrary either because it tends to be initially connected to real communities of real human beings and there's usually a deeper cultural web than appears at surface level, so when you're poking at it, it appears surface-level shallow but there are some real intricacies beneath the surface. (But anyway, go sportsball team.)

But I digress. There are important issues to discuss, yet people aren't really discussing them, partly because people mean different things. "Blockchain" is a strange term that encompasses a wide idea space, and what people consider or assume essential to it vary just as widely, and thus when two people are arguing they might not even be arguing about the same thing. So let's get to unpacking.

"Blockchain" as handwaving towards decentralized networks in general

Years ago I was at a conference about decentralized networked technology, and I was having a conversation with someone I had just met. This person was telling me how excited they were about blockchains... finally we have decentralized network designs, and so this seems really useful for society!

I paused for a moment and said yes, blockchains can be useful for some things, though they tend to have significant costs or at least tradeoffs. It's good that we also have other decentralized network technology; for example, the ActivityPub standard I was involved in had no blockchains but did rely on the much older "classic actor model."

"Oh," the other person said, "I didn't know there were other kinds of decentralized network designs. I thought that 'blockchain' just meant 'decentralized network technology'."

It was as if a light had turned on and illuminated the room for me. Oh! This explained so many conversations I had been having over the years. Of course... for many people, blockchains like Bitcoin were the first ever exposure they had (aside from email, which maybe they never gave much thought to as being decentralized) of something that involved a decentralized protocol. So for many people, "blockchain" and "decentralized technology" are synonyms, if not in technical design, but in terms of understanding of a space.

Mark S. Miller, who was standing next to me, smiled and gave a very interesting followup: "There is only one case in which you need a blockchain, and that is in a decentralized system which needs to converge on a single order of events, such as a public ledger dealing with the double spending problem."

Two revelations at once. It was a good conversation... it was a good start. But I think there's more.

Blockchains are the "cloud" of merkle trees

As time has gone on, the discourse over blockchains has gotten more dramatic. This is partly because what a "blockchain" is hasn't been well defined.

All terminology exists on an ever-present battle between fuzziness and crispness, with some terms being much clearer than others. The term "boolean" has a fairly crisp definition in computer science, but if I ask you to show me your "stove", the device you show me today may be incomprehensible to someone's definition a few centuries ago, particularly in that today it might not involve fire. Trying to define as in terms of its functionality can also cause confusion: if I asked you to show me a stove, and you showed me a computer processor or a car engine, I might be fairly confused, even though technically people enjoy showing off that they can cook eggs on both of these devices when they get hot enough. (See also: Identity is a Katamari, language is a Katamari explosion.)

Still, some terms are fuzzier than others, and as far as terms go, "blockchain" is quite fuzzy. Hence my joke: "Blockchains are the 'cloud' of merkle trees."

This ~joke tends to get a lot of laughs out of a particular kind of audience, and confused looks from others, so let me explain. The one thing everyone seems to agree on is that it's a "chain of blocks", but all that really seems to mean is that it's a merkle tree... really, just an immutable datastructure where one node points at the parent node which points at the parent node all the way up. The joke then is not that this merkle tree runs on a cloud, but that "cloud computing" means approximately nothing: it's marketing speak for some vague handwavey set of "other peoples' computers are doing computation somewhere, possibly on your behalf sometimes." Therefore, "cloud of merkle trees" refers to the vagueness of the situation. (As everyone knows, jokes are funnier when fully explained, so I'll turn on my "STUDIO LAUGHTER" sign here.)

So, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ie a merkle tree, and I mean, technically speaking, that means that Git is a blockchain (especially if the commits are signed), but when you see someone arguing on the internet about whether or not blockchains are "good" or "bad", they probably weren't thinking about git, which aside from having a high barrier of entry in its interface and some concerns about the hashing algorithm used, isn't really something likely to drag you into an internet flamewar.

"Blockchain" is to "Bitcoin" what "Roguelike" is to "Rogue"

These days it's common to see people either heaping praises on blockchains or criticizing them, and those people tend to be shouting past one another. I'll save unpacking that for another post. In the meanwhile though, it's worth noting that people might not be talking about the same things.

What isn't in doubt is whether or not Bitcoin is a blockchain... trying to understand and then explore the problem space around Bitcoin is what created the term "blockchain". It's a bit like the video game genre of roguelikes, which started with the game Rogue, particularly explored and expanded upon in NetHack, and then suddenly exploding into the indie game scene as a "genre" of its own. Except the genre has become fuzzier and fuzzier as people have explored the surrounding space. What is essential? Is a grid based layout essential? Is a non-euclidean grid acceptable? Do you have to provide an ascii or ansi art interface so people can play in their terminals? Dare we allow unicode characters? What if we throw out terminals altogether and just play on a grid of 2d pixelart? What about 3d art? What about permadeath? What about the fantasy theme? What about random level generation? What are the key features of a roguelike?

Well now we're at the point where I pick up a game like Blazing Beaks and it calls itself a "roguelite", which I guess is embracing the point that terminology has gotten extremely fuzzy... this game feels more like Robotron than Rogue.

So... if "blockchain" is to Bitcoin what "roguelike" is to Rogue, then what's essential to a blockchain? Does the blockchain have to be applied to a financial instrument, or can it be used to store updateable information about eg identity? Is global consensus required? Or what about a "trusted quorum" of nodes, such as in Hyperledger? Is "mining" some kind of asset a key part of the system? Is proof of work acceptable, or is proof of stake okay? What about proof of space, proof of space-time, proof of pudding?

On top of all this, some of the terms around blockchains have been absorbed as if into them. For instance, I think to many people, "smart contract" means something like "code which runs on a blockchain" thanks to Ethereum's major adoption of the term, but the E programming language described "smart contracts" as the "likely killer app of distributed capabilities" all the way back in 1999, and was borrowing the term from Nick Szabo, but really the same folks working on E had described many of those same ideas in the Agoric Papers back in 1988. Bitcoin wasn't even a thing at all until at least 2008, so depending on how you look at it, "smart contracts" precede "blockchains" by one or two decades. So "blockchain" has somehow even rolled up terms outside of its space as if within it. (By the way, I don't think anyone has given a good and crisp definition for "smart contract" either despite some of these people trying to give me one, so let me give you one that I think is better and embraces its fuzziness: "Smart contracts allow you to do the kinds of things you might do with legal contracts, but relying on networked computation instead of a traditional state-based legal system." It's too bad more people also don't know about the huge role that Mark Miller's "split contracts" idea plays into this space because that's what makes the idea finally makes sense... but that's a conversation for another time.) (EDIT: Well, after I wrote this, Kate Sills lent me her definition, which I think is the best one: "Smart contracts are credible commitments using technology, and outside a state-provided legal system." I like it!)

So anyway, the point of this whole section is to say that kind of like roguelike, people are thinking of different things as essential to blockchains. Everyone roughly agrees on the jumping-off point of ideas but since not everyone agrees from there, it's good to check in when we're having the conversation. Wait, you do/don't like this game because it's a roguelike? Maybe we should check in on what features you mean. Likewise for blockchains. Because if you're blaming blockchains for burning down the planet, more than likely you're not condemning signed git repositories (or at least, if you're condemning them, you're probably doing so about it from an aspect that isn't the fundamental datastructure... probably).

This is an "easier said than done" kind of thing though, because of course, I'm kind of getting into some "in the weeds" level of details here... but it's the "in the weeds" where all the substance of the disagreements really are. The person you are talking with might not actually even know or consider the same aspects to be essential that you consider essential though, so taking some time to ask which things we mean can help us lead to a more productive conversation sooner.

"Blockchain" as an identity signal

First, a digression. One thing that's kind of curious about the term "virtue signal" is that in general it tends to be used as a kind of virtue signal. It's kind of like the word hipster in the previous decade, which weirdly seemed to be obsessively and pejoratively used by people who resembled hipsters than anyone else. Hence I used to make a joke called "hipster recursion", which is that since hipsters seem more obsessesed with pejorative labeling of hipsterism than anyone else, there's no way to call someone a "hipster" without yourself taking on hipster-like traits, and so inevitably even this conversation is N-levels deep into hipster recursion for some numerical value of N.

"Virtue signaling" appears similar, but even more ironically so (which is a pretty amazing feat given how much of hipsterdom seems to surround a kind of inauthentic irony). When I hear someone say "virtue signaling" with a kind of sneer, part of that seems to be acknowledging that other people are sending signals merely to impress others that they are some kind of the same group but it seems as if it's being raised as in a you-know-and-I-know-that-by-me-acknowledging-this-I'm-above-virtue-signaling kind of way. Except that by any possible definition of virtue signaling, the above appears to be a kind of virtue signaling, so now we're into virtue signaling recursion.

Well, one way to claw our way out of the rabbithole of all this is to drop the pejorative aspect of it and just acknowledge that signaling is something that everyone does. Hence me saying "identity signaling" here. You can't really escape identity signaling, or even sportsballing, but you can acknowledge that it's a thing that we all do, and there's a reason for it: people only have so much time to find out information about each other, so they're searching for clues that they might align and that, if they introduce you to their peer group, that you might align with them as well, without access to a god-like view of the universe where they know exactly what you think and exactly what kinds of things you've done and exactly what way you'll behave in the future or whether or not you share the same values. (After all, what else is virtue ethics but an ethical framework that takes this in its most condensed form as its foundation?) But it's true that at its worst, this seems to result in shallow, quick, judgmental behavior, usually based on stereotypes of the other side... which can be unfortunate or unfair to whomever is being talked about. But also on the flip side, people also do identity signal to each other because they want to create a sense of community and bonding. That's what a lot of culture is. It's worth acknowledging then that this occurs, recognizing its use and limitations, without pretending that we are above it.

So wow, that's quite a major digression, so now let's get back to "identity signaling". There is definitely a lot of identity signaling that tends to happen around the word "blockchain", for or against. Around the critiques of the worst of this, I tend to agree: I find much of the machismo hyper-white-male-privilege that surrounds some of the "blockchain" space uncomfortable or cringey.

But I also have some close friends who are not male and/or are people of color and those ones tend to actually suffer the worst of it from these communities internally, but also seem to find things of value in them, but particularly seem to feel squeezed externally when the field is reduced to these kinds of (anti?-)patterns. There's something sad about that, where I see on the one hand friends complaining about blockchain from the outside on behalf of people who on the inside seem to be both struggling internally but then kind of crushed by being lumped into the same identified problems externally. This is hardly a unique problem but it's worth highlighting for a moment I think.

But anyway, I've taken a bunch of time on this, more than I care to, maybe because (irony again?) I feel that too much of public conversation is also hyperfocusing on this aspect... whether there's a subculture around blockchain, whether or not that subculture is good or bad, etc. There's a lot worthwhile in unpacking this discourse-wise, but some of the criticisms of blockchains as a technology (to the extent it even is coherently one) seem to get lumped up into all of this. It's good to provide thoughtful cultural critique, particularly one which encourages healthy social change. And we can't escape identity signaling. But as someone who's trying to figure out what properties of networked systems we do and don't want, I feel like I'm trying to navigate the machine and for whatever reason, my foot keeps getting caught in the gears here. Well, maybe that itself is pointing to some architectural mistakes, but socially architectural ones. But it's useful to also be able to draw boundaries around it so that we know where this part of the conversation begins and ends.

"Blockchain" as "decentralized centralization" (or "decentralized convergence")

One of the weird things about people having the idea of "blockchains" as being synonymous with "decentralization" is that it's kind of both very true and very untrue, depending on what abstraction layer you're looking at.

For a moment, I'm going to frame this in harsh terms: blockchains are decentralized centralization.

What? How dare I! You'll notice that this section is in harsh contrast to the "blockchain as handwaving towards decentralized networks in general" section... well, I am acknowledging the decentralized aspect of it, but the weird thing about a blockchain is that it's a decentralized set of nodes converging on (creating a centrality of!) a single abstract machine.

Contrast with classic actor model systems like CapTP in Spritely Goblins, or as less good examples (because they aren't quite as behavior-oriented as they are correspondence-oriented, usually) ActivityPub or SMTP (ie, email). All of these systems involve decentralized computation and collaboration stemming from sending messages to actors (aka "distributed objects"). Of CapTP this is especially clear and extreme: computations happen in parallel across many collaborating machines (and even better, many collaborating objects on many collaborating machines), and the behavior of other machines and their objects is often even opaque to you. (CapTP survives this in a beautiful way, being able to do well on anonymous, peer to peer, "mutually suspicious" networks. But maybe read my rambling thoughts about CapTP elsewhere.)

While to some degree there are some very clever tricks in the world of cryptography where you may be able to get back some of the opacity, this tends to be very expensive, adding an expensive component to the already inescapable additional expenses of a blockchain. A multi-party blockchain with some kind of consensus will always, by definition be slower than a single machine operating alone.

If you are irritated by this framing: good. It's probably good to be irritated by it at least once, if you can recognize the portion of truth in it. But maybe that needs some unpacking to get there. It might be better to say "blockchains are decentralized convergence", but I have some other phrasing that might be helpful.

"Blockchain" as "a single machine that many people run"

There's value in having a single abstract machine that many people run. The most famous source of value is in the "double spending problem". How do we make sure that when someone has money, they don't spend that money twice?

Traditional accounting solves this with a linear, sequential ledger, and it turns out that the right solution boils down to the same thing in computers. Emphasis on sequential: in order to make sure money balances out right, we really do have to be able to order things.

Here's the thing though: the double spending problem was in a sense solved in terms of single-computers a long time ago in the object capability security community. Capability-based Financial Instruments was written about a decade before blockchains even existed and showed off how to make a "mint" (kind of like a fiat-currency bank) that can be implemented in about 25 lines of code in the right architecture (I've ported it to Goblins, for instance) and yet has both distributed accounts and is robust against corruption on errors.

However, this seems to be running on a "single-computer based machine", and again operates like a fiat currency. Anyone can create their own fiat currency like this, and they are cheap, cheap, cheap (and fast!) to make. But it does rely on sequentiality to some degree to operate correctly (avoiding a class of attacks called "re-entrancy attacks").

But this "single-computer based machine" might bother you for a couple reasons:

  • We might be afraid the server might crash and service will be interrupted, or worse yet, we will no longer be able to access our accounts.

  • Or, even if we could trade these on an open market, and maybe diversify our portfolio, maybe we don't want to have to trust a single operator or even some appointed team of operators... maybe we have a lot of money in one of these systems and we want to be sure that it won't suddenly vanish due to corruption.

Well, if our code operates deterministically, then what if from the same initial conditions (or saved snapshot of the system) we replay all input messages to the machine? Functional programmers know: we'll end up with the same result.

So okay, we might want to be sure this doesn't accidentally get corrupted, maybe for backup reasons. So maybe we submit the input messages to two computers, and then if one crashes, we just continue on with the second one until the other comes up, and then we can restore the first one from the progress the second machine made while the first one was down.

Oh hey, this is already technically a blockchain. Except our trust model is that we implicitly trust both machines.

Hm. Maybe we're now worried that we might have top-down government pressure to coerce some behavior on one of our nodes, or maybe we're worried that someone at a local datacenter is going to flip some bits to make themselves rich. So we actually want to spread this abstract machine out over three countries. So okay, we do that, and now we set a rule agreeing on what all the series of input messages are... if two of three nodes agree, that's good enough. Oh hey look, we've just invented the "small-quorum-style" blockchain/ledger!

(And yes, you can wire up Goblins to do just this; a hint as to how is seen in the Terminal Phase time travel demo. Actually, let's come back to that later.)

Well, okay. This is probably good enough for a private financial asset, but what about if we want to make something more... global? Where nobody is in charge!

Well, we could do that too. Here's what we do.

  • First, we need to prevent a "swarming attack" (okay, this is generally called a "sybil attack" in the literature, but for a multitude of reasons I won't get into, I don't like that term). If a global set of peers are running this single abstract machine, we need to make sure there aren't invocations filling up the system with garbage, since we all basically have to keep that information around. Well... this is exactly where those proof-of-foo systems come in the first time; in fact Proof of Work's origin is in something called Hashcash which was designed to add "friction" to disincentivize spam for email-like systems. If we don't do something friction-oriented in this category, our ledger is going to be too easily filled with garbage too fast. We also need to agree on what the order of messages is, so we can use this mechanism in conjuction with a consensus algorithm.

  • When are new units of currency issued? Well, in our original mint example, the person who set up the mint was the one given the authority to make new money out of thin air (and they can hand out attenuated versions of that authority to others as they see fit). But what if instead of handing this capability out to individuals we handed it out to anyone who can meet an abstract requirement? For instance, in zcap-ld an invoker can be any kind of entity which is specified with linked data proofs, meaning those entities can be something other than a single key... for instance, what if we delegated to an abstract invoker that was specified as being "whoever can solve the state of the machine's current proof-of-work puzzle"? Oh my gosh! We just took our 25-line mint and extended it for mining-style blockchains. And the fundamental design still applies!

With these two adjustments, we've created a "public blockchain" akin to bitcoin. And we don't need to use proof-of-work for either technically... we could swap in different mechanisms of friction / qualification.

If the set of inputs are stored as a merkle tree, then all of the system types we just looked at are technically blockchains:

  • A second machine as failover in a trusted environment

  • Three semi-trusted machines with small-scale private consensus

  • A public blockchain without global trust, with swarming-attack resistance and an interesting abstract capability accessible to anyone who can meet the abstract requirement (in this case, to issue some new currency).

The difference for choosing any of the above is really a question of: "what is your trust/failover requirements?"

Blockchains as time travel plus convergent inputs

If this doesn't sound believable to you, that you could create something like a "public blockchain" on top of something like Goblins so easily, consider how we might extend time travel in Terminal Phase to add multiplayer. As a reminder, here's an image:

Time travel in Spritely Goblins shown through Terminal Phase

Now, a secret thing about Terminal Phase is that the gameplay is deterministic (the random starfield in the background is not, but the gameplay is) and runs on a fixed frame-rate. This means that given the same set of keyboard inputs, the game will always play the same, every time.

Okay, well let's say we wanted to hand some way for someone to replay our last game. Chess games can be fully replayed with a very condensed syntax, meaning that merely handing someone a short list of codes they can precisely replay the same game, every time, deterministically.

Well okay, as a first attempt at thinking this through, what if for some game of Terminal Phase I played we wrote down each keystroke I entered on my keyboard, on every tick of the game? Terminal Phase runs at 30 ticks per second. So okay, if you replay these, each one at 30 ticks per second, then yeah, you'd end up with the same gameplay every time.

It would be simple enough for me to encode these as a linked list (cons, cons, cons!) and hand them to you. You could descend all the way to the root of the list and start playing them back up (ie, play the list in reverse order) and you'd get the same result as I did. I could even stream new events to you by giving you new items to tack onto the front of the list, and you could "watch" a game I was playing live.

So now imagine that you and I want to play Terminal Phase together now, over the network. Let's imagine there are two ships, and for simplicity, we're playing cooperatively. (The same ideas can be extended to competitive, but for narrating how real-time games work it's easier to to start with a cooperative assumption.)

We could start out by wiring things up on the network so that I am allowed to press certain keys for player 1 and you are allowed to press certain keys for player 2. (Now it's worth noting that a better way to do this doesn't involve keys on the keyboard but capability references, and really that's how we'd do things if we were to bring this multiplayer idea live, but I'm trying to provide a metaphor that's easy to think about without introducing the complicated sounding kinds of terms like "c-lists" and "vat turns" that we ocap people seem to like.) So, as a first attempt, maybe if we were playing on a local area network or something, we could synchronize at every game tick: I share my input with you and you share yours, and then and only then do both of our systems actually input them into that game-tick's inputs. We'll have achieved a kind of "convergence" as to the current game state on every tick. (EDIT: I wrote "a kind of consensus" instead of "a kind of convergence" originally, and that was an error, because it misleads on what consensus algorithms tend to do.)

Except this wouldn't work very well if you and I were living far away from each other and playing over the internet... the lag time for doing this for every game tick might slow the system to a crawl... our computers wouldn't get each others' inputs as fast as the game was moving along, and would have to pause until we received each others' moves.

So okay, here's what we'll do. Remember the time-travel GUI above? As you can see, we're effectively restoring from an old snapshot. Oh! So okay. We could save a snapshot of the game every second, and then both get each other our inputs to each other as fast as we can, but knowing it'll lag. So, without having seen your inputs yet, I could move my ship up and to the right and fire (and send that I did that to you). My game would be in a "dirty state"... I haven't actually seen what you've done yet. Now suddenly I get the last set of moves you did over the network... in the last five frames, you move down and to the left and fire. Now we've got each others' inputs... what our systems can do is secretly time travel behind the scenes to the last snapshot, then fast forward, replaying both of our inputs on each tick up until the latest state where we've both seen each others' moves (but we wouldn't show the fast forward process, we'd just show the result with the fast forward having been applied). This can happen fast enough that I might see your ship jump forward a little, and maybe your bullet will kill the enemy instead of mine and the scores shift so that you actually got some points that for a moment I thought I had, but this can all happen in realtime and we don't need to slow down the game at all to do it.

Again, all the above can be done, but with actual wiring of capabilities instead of the keystroke metaphor... and actually, the same set of ideas can be done with any kind of system, not just a game.

And oh hey, technically, technically, technically if we both hashed each of our previous messages in the linked list and signed each one, then this would qualify as a merkle tree and then this would also qualify as a blockchain... but wait, this doesn't have anything to do with cryptocurrencies! So is it really a blockchain?

"Blockchain" as synonym for "cryptocurrency" but this is wrong and don't do this one

By now you've probably gotten the sense that I really was annoyed with the first section of "blockchain" as a synonym for "decentralization" (especially because blockchains are decentralized centralization/convergence) and that is completely true. But even more annoying to me is the synonym of "blockchain" with "cryptocurrency".

"Cryptocurrency" means "cryptographically based currency" and it is NOT synonymous with blockchains. Digicash precedes blockchains by a dramatic amount, but it is a cryptocurrency. The "simple mint" type system also precedes blockchains and while it can be run on a blockchain, it can also run on a solo computer/machine.

But as we saw, we could perceive multiplayer Terminal Phase as technically, technically a blockchain, even though it has nothing to do with currencies whatsoever.

So again a blockchain is just a single, abstract, sequential machine, run by multiple parties. That's it. It's more general than cryptocurrencies, and it's not exclusive to implementing them either. One is a kind of programming-plus-cryptography-use-case (cryptocurrencies), the other one is a kind of abstracted machine (blockchains).

So please. They are frequently combined, but don't treat them as the same thing.

Blockchains as single abstract machines on a wider network

One of my favorite talks is Mark Miller's Programming Secure Smart Contracts talk. Admittedly, I like it partly because it well illustrates some of the low-level problems I've been working on, and that might not be as useful to everyone else. But it has this lovely diagram in it:

Machines / Vats / Ocaps / Erights layers of abstractions

This is better understood by watching the video, but the abstraction layers described here are basically as follows:

  • "Machines" are the lowest layer of abstraction on the network, but there a variety of kinds of machines. Public blockchains are one, quorum blockchains are another, solo computer machines yet another (and the simplest case, too). What's interesting then is that we can see public chains and quorums abstractly demonstrated as machines in and of themselves... even though they are run by many parties.

  • Vats are the next layer of abstraction, these are basically the "communicating event loops"... actors/objects live inside them, and more or less these things run sequentially.

  • Replace "JS ocaps" with "language ocaps" and you can see actors/objects in both Javascript and Spritely living here.

  • Finally, at the top are "erights" and "smart contracts", which feed into each other... "erights" are "exclusive electronic rights", and "smart contracts" are generally patterns of cooperation involving achieving mutual goals despite suspicion, generally involving the trading of these erights things (but not necessarily).

Okay, well cool! This finally explains the worldview I see blockchains on. And we can see a few curious things:

  • The "public chain" and "quorum" kinds of machines still boil down to a single, sequential abstract machine.

  • Object connections exist between the machines... ocap security. No matter whether it's run by a single computer or multiple.

  • Public blockchains, quorum blockchains, solo-computer machines all talk to each other, and communicate between object references on each other.

Blockchains are not magical things. They are abstracted machines on the network. Some of them have special rules that let whoever can prove they qualify for them access some well-known capabilities, but really they're just abstracted machines.

And here's an observation: you aren't ever going to move all computation to a single blockchain. Agoric's CEO, Dean Tribble, explained beautifully why on a recent podcast:

One of the problems with Ethereum is it is as tightly coupled as possible. The entire world is a single sequence of actions that runs on a computer with about the power of a cell phone. Now, that's obviously hugely valuable to be able to do commerce in a high-integrity fashion, even if you can only share a cell phone's worth of compute power with the entire rest of the world. But that's clearly gonna hit a brick wall. And we've done lots of large-scale distributed systems whether payments or cyberspace or coordination, and the fundamental model that covers all of those is islands of sequential programming in a sea of asynchronous communication. That is what the internet is about, that's what the interchain is about, that's what physics requires you to do if you want a system to scale.

Put this way, it should be obvious: are we going to replace the entire internet with something that has the power of a cell phone? To ask the question is to know the answer: of course not. Even when we do admit blockchain'y systems into our system, we're going to have to have many of them communicating with each other.

Blockchains are just machines that many people/agents run. That's it.

Some of these are encoded with some nice default programming to do some useful things, but all of them can be done in non-blockchain systems because communicating islands of sequential processes is the generalization. You might still want a blockchain, ie you might want multiple parties running one of those machines as a shared abstract machine, but how you configure that blockchain from there might depend on your trust and integrity requirements.

What do I think of blockchains?

I've covered a wide variety of perspectives of "what is a blockchain" in this article.

On the worse end of things are the parts involving hand-wavey confusion about decentralization, mistaken ideas of them being tied to cryptocurrencies, marketing hype, cultural assumptions, and some real, but not intrinsic, cultural problems.

In the middle, I am particularly keen on highlighting the similarity between the term "blockchain" and the term "roguelike", how both of them might boil down to some key ideas or not, but more importantly they're both a rough family of ideas that diverge from one highly influential source (Bitcoin and Rogue respectively). This is also the source of much of the "shouting past each other", because many people are referring to different components that they view as essential or inessential. Many of these pieces may be useful or harmful in isolation, in small amounts, in large amounts, but much of the arguing (and posturing) involves highlighting different things.

On the better end of things is a revelation, that blockchains are just another way of abstracting a computer so that multiple parties can run it. The particular decisions and use cases layered on top of this fundamental design are highly variant.

Having made the waters clear again, we could muddy them. A friend once tried to convince me that all computers are technically blockchains, that blockchains are the generalization of computing, and the case of a solo computer is merely one where a blockchain is run only by one party and no transaction history or old state is kept around. Maybe, but I don't think this is very useful. You can go in either direction, and I think the time travel and Terminal Phase section maybe makes that clear to me, but I'm not so sure how it lands with others I suppose. But a term tends to be useful in terms of what it introduces, and calling everything a blockchain seems to make the term even less useful than it already is. While a blockchain could be one or more parties running a sequential machine as the generalization, I suggest we stick to two or more.

Blockchains are not magic pixie dust, putting something on a blockchain does not make it work better or more decentralized... indeed, what a blockchain really does is converging (or re-centralizing) a machine from a decentralized set of computers. And it always does so with some cost, some set of overhead... but what those costs and overhead are varies depending on what the configuration decisions are. Those decisions should always stem from some careful thinking about what those trust and integrity needs are... one of the more frustrating things about blockchains being a technology of great hype and low understanding is that such care is much less common than it should be.

Having a blockchain, as a convergent machine, can be useful. But how that abstracted convergent machine is arranged can diverge dramatically; if we aren't talking about the same choices, we might shout past each other. Still, it may be an unfair ask to request that those without a deep technical background go into technical specifics, and I recognize that, and in a sense there can be some amount gained from speaking towards broad-sweeping, fuzzy sets and the patterns they seem to be carrying. A gut-sense assertion from a set of loosely observed behaviors can be a useful starting point. But to get at the root of what those gut senses actually map to, we will have to be specific, and we should encourage that specificity where we can (without being rude about it) and help others see those components as well.

But ultimately, as convergent machines, blockchains will not operate alone. I think the system that will hook them all together should be CapTP. But no matter the underlying protocol abstraction, blockchains are just abstract machines on the network.

Having finally disentangled what blockchains are, I think soon I would like to move onto what cryptocurrencies are. Knowing that they are not necessarily tied to blockchains opens us up to considering an ecosystem, even an interoperable and exchangeable one, of varying cryptographically based financial instruments, and the different roles and uses they might play. But that is another post of its own, for whenever I can get to it, I suppose.

ADDENDUM: After writing this post, I had several conversations with several blockchain-oriented people. Each of them roughly seemed to agree that Bitcoin was roughly the prototypical "blockchain", but each of them also seemed to highlight different things they thought were "essential" to what a "blockchain" is: some kinds of consensus algorithms being better than others, that kinds of social arrangements are enabled, whether transferrable assets are encoded on the chain, etc. To start with, I feel like this does confirm some of the premise of this post, that Bitcoin is the starting point, but like Rogue and "roguelikes", "blockchains" are an exploration space stemming from a particular influential technical piece.

However my friend Kate Sills (who also gave me a much better definition for "smart contracts", added above) highlighted something that I hadn't talked about much in my article so far, which I do agree deserves expansion. Kate said: "I do think there is something huge missing from your piece. Bitcoin is amazing because it aligns incentives among actors who otherwise have no goals in common."

I agree that there's something important here, and this definition of "blockchain" maybe does explain why while from a computer science perspective, perhaps signed git trees do resemble blockchains, they don't seem to fit within the realm of what most people are thinking about... while git might be a tool used by several people with aligned incentives, it is not generally itself the layer of incentive-alignment.

The hurt of this moment, hopes for the future

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Wed 31 March 2021

Of the deeper thoughts I might give to this moment, I have given them elsewhere. For this blogpost, I just want to speak of feelings... feelings of hurt and hope.

I am reaching out, collecting the feelings of those I see around me, writing them in my mind's journal. Though I hold clear positions in this moment, there are few roots of feeling and emotion about the moment I feel I haven't steeped in myself at some time. Sometimes I tell this to friends, and they think maybe I am drifting from a mutual position, and this is painful for them. Perhaps they fear this could constitute or signal some kind of betrayal. I don't know what to say: I've been here too long to feel just one thing, even if I can commit to one position.

So I open my journal of feelings, and here I share some of the pages collecting the pain I see around me:

The irony of a movement wanting to be so logical and above feelings being drowned in them.

The feelings of those who found a comfortable and welcoming home in a world of loneliness, and the split between despondence and outrage for that unraveling.

The feelings of those who wanted to join that home too, but did not feel welcome.

The pent up feelings of those unheard for so long, uncorked and flowing.

The weight and shadow of a central person who seems to feel things so strongly but cannot, and does not care to learn to, understand the feelings of those around them.

I flip a few pages ahead. The pages are blank, and I interpret this as new chapters for us to write, together.

I hope we might re-discover the heart of our movement.

I hope we can find a place past the pain of the present, healing to build the future.

I hope we can build a new home, strong enough to serve us and keep us safe, but without the walls, moat, and throne of a fortress.

I hope we can be a movement that lives up to our claims: of justice, of freedom, of human rights, to bring these to everyone, especially those we haven't reached.

Vote for Amy Guy on the W3C TAG (if you can)

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Mon 21 December 2020

My friend Amy Guy is running for election on the W3C TAG (Technical Architecture Group). The TAG is an unusual group that sets a lot of the direction of the future of standards that you and I use everyday on the web. Read their statement on running, and if you can, ie if you're one of those unusual people labeled as "AC Representative", please consider voting for them. (Due to the nature of the W3C's organizational and funding structure, only paying W3C Members tend to qualify... if you know you're working for an organization that has paying membership to the W3C, find out who the AC rep is and strongly encourage them to vote for Amy.)

So, why vote for Amy? Quite simply, they're running on a platform of putting the needs of users first. Despite all the good intents and ambitions of those who have done founding work in these spaces, this perspective tends to get increasingly pushed to the wayside as engineers are pressured to shift their focus on the needs of their immediate employers and large implementors. I'm not saying that's bad; sometimes this even does help advance the interest of users too, but... well we all know the ways in which it can end up not doing so. And I don't know about you, but the internet and the web have felt an awful lot at times like they've been slipping from those early ideals. Amy's platform shares in a growing zeitgeist (sadly, still in the wispiest of stages) of thinking and reframing from the perspective of user empowerment, privacy, safety, agency, autonomy. Amy's platform reminds me of RFC 8890: The Internet Is For End Users. That's a perspective shift we desperately need right now... for the internet and the web both.

That's all well and good for the philosophical-alignment angle. But what about the "Technical" letter in TAG? Amy's standing there is rock-solid. And I know because I've had the pleasure of working side-by-side with Amy on several standards (including ActivityPub, of which we are co-authors.

Several times I watched with amazement as Amy and I talked about some changes we thought were necessary and Amy just got in the zone, this look of intense hyperfocus (really, someone should record the Amy Spec Editing Zone sometime, it's quite a thing to see), and they refactored huge chunks of the spec to match our discussion. And Amy knows, and deeply cares, about so many aspects of the W3C's organization and structure.

So, if you can vote for, or know how to get your organization to vote for, an AC rep... well, I mean do what you want I guess, but if you want someone who will help... for great justice, vote Amy Guy to the W3C TAG!

Identity is a Katamari, language is a Katamari explosion

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Wed 09 December 2020

I said something strange this morning:

Identity is a Katamari, language is a continuous reverse engineering effort, and thus language is a quadratic explosion of Katamaris.

This sounds like nonsense probably, but has a lot of thought about it. I have spent a lot of time in the decentralized-identity community and the ocap communities, both of which have spent a lot of time hemming and hawing about "What is identity?", "What is a credential or claim?", "What is authorization?", "Why is it unhygienic for identity to be your authorization system?" (that mailing list post is the most important writing about the nature of computing I've ever written; I hope to have a cleaned up version of the ideas out soon).

But that whole bit about "what is identity, is it different than an identifier really?" etc etc etc...

Well, I've found one good explanation, but it's a bit silly.

Identity is a Katamari

There is a curious, surreal, delightful (and proprietary, sorry) game, Katamari Damacy. It has a silly story, but the interesting thing here is the game mechanic, involving rolling around a ball-like thing that picks up objects and grows bigger and bigger kind of like a snowball. It has to be seen or played to really be understood.

This ball-like thing is called a "Katamari Damacy", or "soul clump", which is extra appropriate for our mental model. As it rolls around, it picks up smaller objects and grows bigger. The ball at the center is much like an identifier. But over time that identifier becomes obscured, it picks up things, which in the game are physical objects, but these metaphorically map to "associations".

Our identity-katamari changes over time. It grows and picks up associations. Sometimes you forget something you've picked up that's in there, it's buried deep (but it's wiggling around in there still and you find out about it during some conversation with your therapist). Over time the katamari picks up enough things that it is obscured. Sometimes there are collisions, you smash it into something and some pieces fly out. Oh well, don't worry about it. They probably weren't meant to be.

Language is reverse engineering

Shout out to my friend Jonathan Rees for saying something that really stuck in my brain (okay actually most things that Rees says stick in my brain):

"Language is a continuous reverse engineering effort, where both sides are trying to figure out what the other side means."

This is true, but its truth is the bane of ontologists and static typists. This doesn't mean that ontologies or static typing are wrong, but that the notion that they're fixed is an illusion... a useful, powerful illusion (with a great set of mathematical tools behind it sometimes that can be used with mathematical proofs... assuming you don't change the context), but an illusion nonetheless. Here are some examples that might fill out what I mean:

  • The classic example, loved by fuzzy typists everywhere: when is a person "bald"? Start out with a person with a "full head" of hair. How many hairs must you remove for that person to be "bald"? What if you start out the opposite way... someone is bald... how many hairs must you add for them to become not-bald?

  • We might want to construct a precise recipe for a mango lassi. Maybe, in fact, we believe we can create a precise typed definition for a mango lassi. But we might soon find ourselves running into trouble. Can a vegan non-dairy milk be used for the Lassi? (Is vegan non-dairy milk actually milk?) Is ice cream acceptable? Is added sugar necessary? Can we use artificial mango-candy powder instead of mangoes? Maybe you can hand-wave away each of these, but here's something much worse: what's a mango? You might think that's obvious, a mango is the fruit of mangifera indica or maybe if you're generous fruit of anything in the mangifera genus. But mangoes evolved and there is some weird state where we had almost-a-mango and in the future we might have some new states which are no-longer-a-mango, but more or less we're throwing darts at exactly where we think those are... evolution doesn't care, evolution just wants to keep reproducing.

  • Meaning changes over time, and how we categorize does too. Once someone was explaining the Web Ontology Language (which got confused somewhere in its acronym ordering and is shortened to OWL (update: it's a Winnie the Pooh update, based on the way the Owl character spells his name... thank you Amy Guy for informing me of the history)). They said that it was great because you could clearly define what is and isn't allowed and terms derived from other terms, and that the simple and classic example is Gender, which is a binary choice of Male or Female. They paused and thought for a moment. "That might not be a good example anymore."

  • Even if you try to define things by their use or properties rather than as an individual concept, this is messy too. A person from two centuries ago would be confused by the metal cube I call a "stove" today, but you could say it does the same job. Nonetheless, if I asked you to "fetch me a stove", you would probably not direct me to a computer processor or a car engine, even though sometimes people fry an egg on both of these.

Multiple constructed languages (Esperanto most famously) have been made by authors that believed that if everyone spoke the same language, we would have world peace. This is a beautiful idea, that conflict comes purely from misunderstandings. I don't think it's true, especially given how many fights I've seen between people speaking the same language. Nonetheless there's truth in that many fights are about a conflict of ideas.

If anyone was going to achieve this though, it would be the Lojban community, which actually does have a language which is syntactically unambiguous, so you no longer have ambiguity such as "time flies like an arrow". Nonetheless, even this world can't escape the problem that some terms just can't be easily pinned down, and the best example is the bear goo debate.

Here's how it works: both of us can unambiguously construct a sentence referring to a "bear". But when it is that bear no longer a bear? If it is struck in the head and is killed, when in that process has it become a decompositional "bear goo" instead? And the answer is: there is no good answer. Nonetheless many participants want there to be a pre-defined bear, they want us to live in a pre-designed universe where "bear" is a clear predicate that can be checked against, because the universe has a clear definition of "bear" for us.

That doesn't exist, because bears evolved. And more importantly, the concept and existence a bear is emergent, cut across many different domains, from evolution to biology to physics to linguistics.

Sorry, we won't achieve perfect communication, not even in Lojban. But we can get a lot better, and set up a system with fewer stumbling blocks for testing ideas against each other, and that is a worthwhile goal.

Nonetheless, if you and I are camping and I shout, "AAH! A bear! RUN!!", you and I probably don't have to stop to debate bear goo. Rees is right that language is a reverse engineering effort, but we tend to do a pretty good job of gaining rough consensus of what the other side means. Likewise, if I ask you, "Where is your stove?", you probably won't lead me to your computer or your car. And if you hand me a "sugar free vegan mango lassi made with artificial mango flavor" I might doubt its cultural authenticity, but if you then referred to the "mango lassi" you had just handed me a moment ago, I wouldn't have any trouble continuing the conversation. Because we're more or less built to contextually construct language contexts.

Language is a quadratic explosion of Katamaris

Language is composed of syntax partly, but the arrangement of symbolic terms mostly. Or that's another way to say that the non-syntactic elements of language are mostly there as identifiers substituted mentally for identity and all the associations therein.

Back to the Katamari metaphor. What "language is a reverse-engineering effort" really means is that each of us are constructing identities for identifiers mentally, rolling up katamaris for each identifier we encounter. But what ends up in our ball will vary depending on our experiences and what paths we take.

Which really means that if each person is rolling up a separate, personal identity-katamari for each identifier in the system, that means that, barring passing through a singularity type event-horizon past which participants can do direct shared memory mapping, this is an O(n^2) problem!

But actually this is not a problem, and is kind of beautiful. It is amazing, given all that, just how good we are at finding shared meaning. But it also means that we should be aware of what this means topologically, and that each participant in the system will have a different set of experiences and understanding for each identity-assertion made.

Thank you to Morgan Lemmer-Webber, Stephen Webber, Corbin Simpson, Baldur Jóhannsson, Joey Hess, Sam Smith, Lee Spector, and Jonathan Rees for contributing thoughts that lead to this post (if you feel like you don't belong here, do belong here, or are wondering how the heck you got here, feel free to contact me). Which is not to say that everyone, from their respective positions, have agreement here; I know several disagree strongly with me on some points I've made. But everyone did help contribute to reverse-engineering their positions against mine to help come to some level of shared understanding, and the giant pile of katamaris that is this blogpost.

Spritely website launches, plus APConf video(s)!

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Wed 30 September 2020

Note: This originally appeared as a post on my Patreon account... thanks to all who have donated to support my work!

Hello, hello! Spritely's website has finally launched! Whew... it's been a lot of work to get it to this state! Plus check out our new logo:

Spritely logo

Not bad, eh? Also with plenty of cute characters on the Spritely site (thank you to David Revoy for taking my loose character sketches and making them into such beautiful paintings!)

But those cute characters are there for a reason! Spritely is quite ambitious and has quite a few subprojects. Here's a video that explains how they all fit together. Hopefully that makes things more clear!

Actually that video is from ActivityPub Conference 2020, the talks of which have now all have their videos live! I also moderated the intro keynote panel about ActivityPub authors/editors. Plus there's an easter egg, the ActivityPub Conference Opening Song! :)

But I can't take credit for APConf 2020... organization and support are thanks to Morgan Lemmer-Webber, Sebastian Lasse, and FOSSHost for hosting the website and BigBlueButton instance and for generously hosting all the videos. There's a panel about the organization of APConf you can watch if you're interested in more of that! (And of course, all the other great videos too!)

So... what about that week I was going to work on Terminal Phase? Well... I'm still planning on doing it but admittedly it hasn't happened yet. All of the above took more time than expected. However, today I am working on my talk about Spritely Goblins for RacketCon, and as it turns out, extending Terminal Phase is a big part of that talk. But I'll announce more soon when the Terminal Phase stuff happens.

Onwards and upwards!

Spritely Goblins v0.7 released!

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Sun 13 September 2020

I'm delighted to say that Spritely Goblins v0.7 has been released! This is the first release featuring CapTP support (ie, "capability-secure distributed/networked programming support"), which is a huge milestone for the project!

Okay, caveat... there are still some things missing from the CapTP stuff so far; you can only set up a bidirectional connection between two machines, and can't "introduce" capabilities to other machines on the network. Also setting up connections is an extremely manual process. Both of those should be improved in the next release.

But still! Goblins can now be used to easily write distributed programs! And Goblins' CapTP code even includes such wild features as distributed garbage collection!

As an example (also mentioned in a recent blogpost), I recently wrote a short chat program demo. Both the client and server "protocol" code were less than 250 lines of code, despite having such features as authenticating users during subscription to the chatroom and verifying that messages claimed by the chatroom came from the users it said it did. (The GUI code, by contrast, was a little less than 300 lines.) I wrote this up without writing any network code at all and then tested hooking together two clients over Tor Onion Services using Goblins' CapTP support, and it Just Worked (TM):

Goblins chat GUI demo

What's interesting here is that not a single line of code was added to the backend or GUI to accomodate networking; the host and guest modules merely imported the backend and GUI files completely unchanged and did the network wiring there. Yes, that's what it sounds like: in Goblins you can write distributed asynchronous programs

This is the really significant part of Goblins that's starting to become apparent, and it's all thanks to the brilliant design of CapTP. Goblins continues to stand on the shoulders of giants; thank you to everyone in the ocap community, but especially in this case Michael FIG, Mark S. Miller, Kevin Reid, and Baldur Jóhannsson, all of whom answered an enormous amount of questions (some of them very silly) about CapTP.

There are more people to thank too (too many to list here), and you can see some of them in this monster thread on the captp mailing list which started on May 18th (!!!) as I went through my journey of trying to understand and eventually implement CapTP. I actually started preparing a few weeks before which really means that this journey took me about four and a half months to understand and implement. As it turns out, CapTP is a surprisingly simple protocol protocol in its coneptualization once you understand what it's doing (though implementing it is a bit more complex). I do hope to try to build a guide for others to understand and implement on their own systems... but that will probably wait until Goblins is ported to another language (due to the realative simplicity of the task due to the language similarities, the current plan is to port to Guile next).

Anyway. This is a big deal, a truly exciting moment for goblinkind. If you're excited yourself, maybe join the #spritely channel on

OH! And also, I can't believe I nearly forgot to say this, but if you want to hear more about Spritely in general (not just Goblins), we just released a Spritely-centric episode of FOSS and Crafts. Maybe take a listen!

If you can't tell people anything, can you show them?

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Sat 29 August 2020

The other day I made a sadpost on the fediverse that said: "simultaneously regularly feel like people don't take the directions I'm trying to push seriously enough and that I'm not worth taking seriously". (Similarly, I've also joked that "imposter syndrome and a Cassandra complex are a hell of a combo" before.) I got a number of replies from people, both publicly and privately, and the general summary of most of them are, "We do care! The stuff you're working on seems really cool and valuable! I'll admit that I don't really know what it is you're talking about but it sounds important!" (Okay, and I just re-read, and it was only a portion of it that even said the latter part, but of course, what do I emphasize in my brain?) That was nice to hear that people care and are enthusiastic, and I did feel much better, but it did also kind of feel like confirmation that I'm not getting through to people completely either.

But then jfred made an interesting reply:

Yeah, that feels familiar. Impostor syndrome hits hard. You're definitely worth taking seriously though, and the projects you're working on are the most exciting ones I've been following.

As for people not taking the directions you're pushing seriously... I've felt the same at work, and I think part of it is that there's only so much one person can do. But also part of it is:'s hard to get ideas across to someone until they can interact with it themselves

So first of all, what a nice post! Second of all, it's kind of funny that jfred replied with this because out of everyone, jfred is one of the people who's picked up and understood what's happening in Spritely Goblins in particular the most, often running or creating demos of things on top of it using things I haven't even documented yet (so definitely not a person I would say isn't taking me seriously or getting what the work is doing).

But third, that link to Habitat Chronicles is right on point for a few reasons: first of all, Spritely is hugely influenced by the various generations of Habitat, from the original first-ever-graphical-virtual-worlds Habitat (premiering on the Commodore 64 in the mid 1980s, of all things!) to Electric Communities Habitat, especially because that's where the E programming language came from, which I think it's safe to say has had a bigger influence on Spritely Goblins than anything (except maybe this paper by Jonathan Rees, which is the first time I realized that "oh, object capability security is just normal programming flow"). But also, that blogpost in particular was so perfect about this subject: You can't tell people anything...!

In summary, the blogpost isn't saying that people aren't foolishly incapable of understanding things, but that people in general don't understand well by "being explained to". What helps people understand is experiences:

Eventually people can be educated, but what you have to do is find a way give them the experience, to put them in the situation. Sometimes this can only happen by making real the thing you are describing, but sometimes by dint of clever artifice you can simulate it.

This really congealed for me and helped me feel justified in an approach I've been taking in the Spritely project. In general, up until now I've spent most of my time between two states: coding the backend super-engineering stuff, and coding demos on top of it. You might in the meanwhile see me post technobabble onto my fediverse or birdsite accounts, but I'm not in general trying too hard to write about the structurally interesting things going on until it comes time to write documentation (whether it be for Goblins, or the immutable storage and mutable storage writeups). But in general, the way that I'm convinced people will get it is not by talk but by first, demonstration, and second, use.

Aside from the few people that have picked up and played with Goblins yet, I don't think I've hit a sufficient amount of "use" yet in Spritely. That's ok, I'm not at that stage yet, and when I am, it'll be fairly clear. (ETA: one year from now.) So let's talk about demonstration.

The first demo I wrote was the Golem demo, that showed roughly that distributed but encrypted storage could be applied to the fediverse. Cute and cool, and that turned the heads of a few fediverse implementers.

But let's face it, the best demo I've done yet was the Terminal Phase time travel demo. And it didn't hurt that it had a cool looking animated GIF to go with it:

Time travel in Spritely Goblins shown through Terminal Phase

Prior to this demo, people would ask me, "What's this Goblins thing?" And I'd try to say a number of things to them... "oh, its a distributed, transactional, quasi-functional distributed programming system safe to run in mutually suspicious networks that follows object capability security and the classic actor model in the style of the E programming language but written in Scheme!" And I'd watch as their eyes glaze over because why wouldn't their eyes glaze over after a statement like that, and then I'd try to explain the individual pieces but I could tell that the person would be losing interest by then and why wouldn't they lose interest but even realizing that I'd kind of feel despair settling in...

But when you show them a pew pew space lasers game and oh wow why is there time travel, how did you add time travel, is it using functional reactive programming or something? (Usually FRP systems are the only other ones where people have seen these kinds of time travel demos.) And I'd say nope! It doesn't require that. Mostly it looks like writing just straightahead code but you get this kind of thing for free. And the person would say, wow! Sounds really cool! How much work does it take to add the time travel into the game? And I just say: no extra work at all. I wrote the whole game without testing anything about time travel or even thinking about it, then later I just threw a few extra lines to write the UI to expose the time travel part and it just worked. And that's when I see peoples' heads explode with wonder and the connections start to be made about what Goblins might be able to do.

But of course, that's only a partial connection for two reasons. One is that the time travel demo above only shows off a small, minute part of the features of Goblins. And actually, the least interesting of them! It doesn't show off the distributed programming or asynchronous programming parts, it doesn't show off the cool object capability security that's safe to run in mutually suspicious networks. But still: it gave a taste that something cool is happening here. Maybe Chris hasn't just been blowing a bunch of time since finishing the ActivityPub standardization process about two and a half years ago. (Yikes, two and a half years ago!?!)

To complete the rest of that demonstration of the other things in the system requires a different kind of demo. Terminal Phase was a demo to show off the synchronous half of Goblins, but where Goblins really shines is in the asynchronous, distributed programming stuff. That's not ready to show off yet, but I'll give you the first taste of what's in progress:

Goblins chat GUI demo

(Actually a bit more has progressed since I've recorded that GIF, multiple chatrooms and etc, but not really worth bothering to show off quite yet.)

Hmm, that's not really all that thrilling. A chatroom that looks about the same level of featureful, maybe less, than IRC? Well, it could be more exciting if you hear that the full chat protocol implementation is only about 250 lines of code, including authenticating users and posts by users. That's smaller even than its corresponding GUI code, which is less than 300 lines of code. So the exciting thing there is how much heavy lifting Goblins takes care of for you.

But that's hardly razzle-dazzle exciting. In order for me to hint at the rest of what's happening here, we need to put out an asynchronous programming demo that's as or more interesting than the time travel demo. And I expect to do that. I hope soon enough to show off stuff that will make people go, "Oh, what's going on here?"

But even that doesn't complete the connection for people, because showing is one thing but to complete the loop, we need people to use things. We need to get this stuff in the hands of users to play with and experiment themselves. I have plans to do that... and not only that, make this stuff not intimidating for newcomers. When Spritely guides everyday people towards extending Spritely from inside of Spritely as it runs, that's when it'll really click.

And once it clicks sufficiently, it'll no longer become exciting, because people will just come to expect it. A good example of that comes from the aforementioned You can't tell people anything article:

Years ago, before Lucasfilm, I worked for Project Xanadu (the original hypertext project, way before this newfangled World Wide Web thing). One of the things I did was travel around the country trying to evangelize the idea of hypertext. People loved it, but nobody got it. Nobody. We provided lots of explanation. We had pictures. We had scenarios, little stories that told what it would be like. People would ask astonishing questions, like “who’s going to pay to make all those links?” or “why would anyone want to put documents online?” Alas, many things really must be experienced to be understood. We didn’t have much of an experience to deliver to them though — after all, the whole point of all this evangelizing was to get people to give us money to pay for developing the software in the first place! But someone who’s spent even 10 minutes using the Web would never think to ask some of the questions we got asked.

Eventually, if we succeed, the ideas in Spritely will no longer seem exciting... because people will have internalized and come to expect them. Just like hyperlinks on the web today.

But to get there, in the meanwhile, we have to get people interested. To become so successful as to be mundane, we have to first be razzle-dazzle exciting. And to that end, that's why I take the demo approach to Spritely. Because it's hard to tell someone something... but showing them, that's another matter.

PS: It's also not true that people don't get what I'm doing, and that's even been reflected materially. I've been lucky to be supported over the last few years from a combination of a grant from Samsung's Stack Zero and one from NLNet, not to mention quite a few donors on Patreon. I do recognize and appreciate that people are supporting me. In some ways receiving this support makes me feel more seriously about the need to demonstrate and prove that what I'm doing is real. I hope I am doing and will continue to do a sufficient job, and hope that the upcoming demos contribute to that more materially!

PPS: If, in the meanwhile, you're already excited, check out the Goblins documentation. The most exciting stuff is coming in the next major release (which will be out soon), which is when the distributed programming tools will be made available to users of the system for the first time. But if you want to get a head start, the code you'll be writing will mostly work the same between the distributed and non-distributed (as in, distributed across computers/processes) asynchronous stuff, so if you start reading the docs today, most of your code will already just work on the new stuff once released. And if you do start playing around, maybe drop by the #spritely channel on and say hello!

Terminal Phase in Linux Magazine (Polish edition)

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Wed 12 August 2020

Terminal Phase featured in Polish version of Linux Magazine

Hey look at that! My terminal-space-shooter-game Terminal Phase made an appearance in the Polish version of Linux Magazine. I had no idea, but Michal Majchrzak both tipped me off to it and took the pictures. (Thank you!)

I don't know Polish but I can see some references to Konami and SHMUP (shoot-em-up game). The screenshot they have isn't the one I published, so I guess the author got it running too... I hope they had fun!

Apparently it appeared in the June 2020 edition:

June 2020 edition of Polish Magazine

I guess because print media coverage is smaller, it feels cooler to get covered these days in it in some way?

I wonder if I can find a copy somewhere!

Announcing FOSS and Crafts

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Tue 14 July 2020

I wrote recently about departing Libre Lounge but as I said there, "This is probably not the end of me doing podcasting, but if I start something up again it'll be a bit different in its structure."

Well! Morgan and I have co-launched a new podcast called FOSS and Crafts! As the title implies, it's going to be a fairly interdisciplinary podcast... the title says it all fairly nicely I think: "A podcast about free software, free culture, and making things together."

We already have the intro episode out! It's fairly intro-episode'y... meet the hosts, hear about what to expect from the show, etc etc... but we do talk a bit about some background of the name!

But more substantial episodes will be out soon. We have a lot of plans and ideas for the show, and I've got a pretty good setup for editing/publishing now. So if that sounds fun, subscribe, and more stuff should be hitting your ears soon!

(PS: we have a nice little community growing in #fossandcrafts on if you're into that kind of thing!)

Some updates: CapTP in progress, Datashards, chiptune experiments, etc

By Christine Lemmer-Webber on Tue 30 June 2020

(Originally written as a post for Patreon donors.)

Hello... just figured I'd give a fairly brief update. Since I wrote my last post I've been working hard towards the distributed programming stuff in Goblins.

In general, this involves implementing a protocol called CapTP, which is fairly obscure... the idea is generally to apply the same "object capability security" concept that Goblins already follows but on a networked protocol level. Probably the most prominent other implementation of CapTP right now is being done by the Agoric folks, captp.js. I've been in communication with them... could we achieve interoperability between our implementations? It could be cool, but it's too early to tell. Anyway it's one of those technical areas that's so obscure that I decided to document my progress on the cap-talk mailing list, but that's becoming the length of a small novel... so I guess, beware before you try to read that whole thing. I'm far enough along where the main things work, but not quite everything (CapTP supports such wild things as distributed garbage collection...!!!!)

Anyway, in general I don't think that people get too excited by hearing "backend progress is happening"; I believe that implementing CapTP is even more important than standardizing ActivityPub was in the long run of my life work, but I also am well aware that in general people (including myself!) understand best by seeing an interesting demonstration. So, I do plan another networked demo, akin to the time-travel Terminal Phase demo, but I'm not sure just how fancy it will be (yet). I think I'll have more things to show on that front in 1-2 months.

(Speaking of Goblins and games, I'm putting together a little library called Game Goblin to make making games on top of Goblins a bit easier; it isn't quite ready yet but thought I'd mention it. It's currently going through some "user testing".)

More work is happening on the Datashards front; Serge Wroclawski (project leader for Datashards; I guess you could say I'm "technical engineer") and I have started assembling more documentation and have put together some proto-standards documents. (Warning: WIP WIP WIP!!!) We are exploring with a standards group whether or not Datashards would be a good fit there, but it's too early to talk about that since the standards group is still figuring it out themselves. Anyway, it's taken up a good chunk of time so I figured it was worth mentioning.

So, more to come, and hopefully demos not too far ahead.

But let's end on a fun note. In-between all that (and various things at home, of course), I have taken a bit of what might resemble "downtime" and I'm learning how to make ~chiptunes / "tracker music" with Milkytracker, which is just a lovely piece of software. (I've also been learning more about sound theory and have been figuring out how to compose some of my own samples/"instruments" from code.) Let me be clear, I'm not very good at it, but it's fun to learn a new thing. Here's a dollhouse piano thing (XM file), the start of a haunted video game level (XM file), a sound experiment representing someone interacting with a computer (XM file), and the mandatory demonstration that I've figured out how to do C64-like phase modulation and arpeggios (XM file). Is any of that stuff... "good"? Not really, all pretty amateurish, but maybe in a few months of off-hour experiments it won't be... so maybe some of my future demos / games won't be quite as quiet! ;)

Hope everyone's doing ok out there...